Wellingtons Specialist Troops
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He is the founding editor of the magazine Tradition and has written and illustrated many books, often in collaboration with his late brother, Donald Fosten. Book Description Osprey Publishing, Condition: Good.
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Book Description Paperback. Condition: Very Good. The book has been read, but is in excellent condition. Pages are intact and not marred by notes or highlighting. The spine remains undamaged. Seller Inventory GOR The book has been read but remains in clean condition.
All pages are intact and the cover is intact. Some minor wear to the spine. Ships from the UK.
Former Library book. Great condition for a used book! Minimal wear. Seller Inventory GRP There were three regiments of Foot Guards , each of which had 2 or 3 battalions.
Wellington's Specialist Troops - Osprey Publishing
In background and natural attributes, many recruits to the Foot Guards differed little from those recruited into other regiments, but they received superior training, were better paid, highly motivated and expected to maintain rigorous discipline. There were eventually regiments of the line. They were numbered and, from , were given territorial designations, which roughly represented the area from which troops were drawn.
This was not entirely rigid, and most regiments had a significant proportion of English, Irish, Scots and Welsh together, except for certain deliberately exclusive regiments. One special case, the 60th Foot , ultimately had seven battalions. A line infantry battalion was commanded by its regimental colonel or a lieutenant colonel , and was composed of ten companies , of which eight were "centre" companies, and two were "flank" companies : one a grenadier and one a specialist light company.
Companies were commanded by captains , with lieutenants and ensigns or subalterns beneath him. Generally, the 1st or senior battalion of a regiment would draw fit recruits from the 2nd battalion to maintain its strength. If also sent on active service, the 2nd battalion would consequently be weaker. In the aftermath of the American War of Independence , during which the British infantry had fought in looser formations than previously, rigid close-order linear formations had been advocated by Major General David Dundas.
His Rules and regulations for the formations, field-exercise, and movements, of His Majesty's forces  became the standard drill book for the infantry. As the wars progressed line infantry tactics were developed to allow more flexibility for command and control, placing more reliance upon the officers on the spot for quick reactions.
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The line formation was the most favoured, as it offered the maximum firepower, about to bullets per minute. While the French favoured column formation, the line formation enabled all muskets available to fire at the enemy. In contrast, only the few soldiers in the first rows of the column about 60 were able to fire. The standard weapon of the British infantry was the "India Pattern" version of the Brown Bess musket. This had an effective range of yards, but fire was often reserved until a charging enemy was within 50 yards.
Although the French infantry and, earlier, the Americans frequently used buck and ball in their muskets, the British infantry used only standard ball ammunition. A number of infantry regiments were newly formed as, or converted into, dedicated regular light infantry regiments.
During the early war against the French, the British Army was bolstered by light infantry mercenaries from Germany and the Low Countries , but the British light infantry companies proved inadequate against the experienced and far more numerous French during the Flanders campaign, and in the Netherlands in , and light infantry development became urgent.
An Experimental Corps of Riflemen , armed with the Baker rifle , was formed in , and was brought into the line as the 95th Regiment of Foot Rifles in Some of the light units of the King's German Legion were also armed with the same weapon. The rifle-armed units saw extensive service, most prominently in the Peninsular War where the mountainous terrain saw them in their element.
In , Sir John Moore converted two regiments the 43rd Foot and his own regiment, the 52nd Foot , to light infantry at Shorncliffe Camp , the new specialised training camp for light infantry. Under Moore, this change of role was accompanied by a change in the methods of training and discipline, encouraging initiative and replacing punishment for minor infractions with a system of rewards for good conduct. Light infantry and rifle battalions were composed of eight companies.
While the rifle-armed units adopted a dark green uniform, the musket-armed light infantry units wore tailless jackets in the traditional red colour. They were armed with the "New Light Infantry Land Pattern" of the standard musket, which had a rudimentary backsight to aid individual accuracy, using the bayonet lug as a foresight. While line regiments fired in volleys, light infantry skirmishers fired at will, taking careful aim at targets.
The standard uniform for the majority of regiments throughout the period was the traditional red coat. There was no standardised supply for uniforms, and it was generally left to the regimental colonel to contract for and obtain uniforms for his men, which allowed for some regimental variation.
Regimental tartans were worn but they were all derived from the Black Watch tartan. White, yellow or red lines were added to distinguish between regiments. Trousers for the rank and file were generally of white cotton duck canvas for summer use, and grey woolen trousers were issued for winter wear, although considerable variation exists in the color of the woolen trousers. Originally, the white trousers were cut as overalls, designed to be worn to protect the expensive breeches and gaiters worn by the rank and file, although on campaign, they were often worn by themselves; a practice which was later permitted except on parade.
Soldiers were also issued with grey greatcoats starting in From the last years of the eighteenth century, the bicorne hat was replaced by a cylindrical "stovepipe" shako. In , this was replaced by the false-fronted "Belgic" shako, although light infantry continued to wear the stovepipe version. Grenadiers and Foot Guards continued to be issued bearskins, but these were not worn while on campaign. It was in , during this period of uniform transition, that enlisted soldier rank insignia were first designated by chevrons.
Their introduction allowed the rapid differentiation of sergeants and corporals from private soldiers. Colour sergeant and Lance corporal ranks soon evolved as well. Officers were responsible for providing and paying for their own uniforms.
THE PENINSULAR WAR. PAPER SOLDIERS FOR WELLINGTON'S WAR IN SPAIN
Consequently, variable styles and decorations were present, according to the officer's private means. Close-fitting white pantaloons, tucked into tall Hessian or riding boots were worn, often covered with grey wool and leather overalls on campaign, in addition to a dark blue, later grey, double-breasted greatcoat. After , officers were permitted to wear a short tailed coatee, grey pantaloons or trousers and low field boots on campaign. Officers generally wore silver or gold epaulettes depending on regimental colours , with regimental badge to designate rank.
An order stipulated that subalterns wore one epaulette, on the right shoulder, while captains wore one of a more ornate pattern on the right shoulder. Field officers wore one on each shoulder, badged with a star for majors , a crown lieutenant colonels or star and crown colonels. Until the issue of the Belgic shako in , company officers wore bicorne hats; afterwards, they usually wore the same headgear as their men while on campaign, their status as officers denoted with braided cords.
Generals, field officers and staff officers generally wore bicorne hats. Officers were generally armed with the poorly-regarded Pattern British Infantry Officer's Sword. In light infantry units and the flank companies of line units, they carried the Pattern sabre instead. In highland regiments, a basket-hilted claymore was generally worn. The First had the Union Flag with the Regiment's number in the centre, surrounded by a wreath. The colours were carried into battle for identification, and as a rallying point, in the care of sergeants or ensigns.
Attending the colours in battle was dangerous, since they were a target for enemy artillery and assault. Due to the symbolic significance of the colours, their loss was a grave issue, and extreme measures were often taken to prevent such dishonour occurring. For this reason, the newly raised 95th Rifles received no colours, but the converted line regiments retained their existing colours. Some light infantry regiments opted not to carry them in the Peninsula. The widespread use of campaign medals began during the Napoleonic Wars. The Army Gold Medal "Peninsular Medal" , in round and cross varieties, was issue to battalion commanders and higher ranks for battle service in the Peninsular War.