Panoramic Imaging: Sensor-Line Cameras and Laser Range-Finders

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Illustration of sparse stereo matching with SIFT-features not over time. Evaluation of Test Data example about the role of used cost functions [26], or Current research in stereo image analysis focuses on of image preprocessing methods [74]. The question arises: Given a stereo number of algorithms, but, typically, on very small sets image pair, what is the minimum error we may expect?

Even worse, there is little reasoning We try to answer this question for a wide range of whether data as commonly applied is actually suitable different types of stereo image data, ultimately allowing to prove robustness or even correctness of a particular to quantify this material in terms of quality.

However, algorithm. Such proach of stereo matching techniques is not feasible due evaluations were speeding up progress in the design of to the lack of ground truth. Ranking is typically done by Previous work [42], [50] that does not require ground comparing a few error measures, calculated with respect truth needs at least three time-synchronous views of a to given ground truth and a relatively small number scene.

We develop alternative approaches that only need of images.

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Evaluations lead to particular insights, for binocular imagery. To a human viewer, it is in general obvious whether light reflections at night. Situations typically change texturing or stereo pairs with contrast differing with a every few seconds in normal traffic, and we consider factor of more than two between left and right image 4 to 8 seconds as the standard length of a recorded cannot be matched properly by the human visual system.

Such bio- due to the potential range of events, and thus of their logical models have been successfully applied to the task combinations into situations. We performed experiments test data, say with a focus on rendered or engineered which compared our proposed SIFT-based complexity good lighting, indoor scenes, are insufficient for serious measures [22] with the prediction error analysis for testing.

Second, it may make pro- in their evaluations, as well as also for contributing more cessing of real-world stereo images more tractable by best: verified data. The website contains recently six providing an additional measure of confidence. Fourth, it may ad- See Tab. I for a brief characterization of available sets vance theoretical knowledge about stereo matching by of image sequences. Figure 11 illustrates an application implementing performance evaluation on sophisticated for one of the trinocular sequences. Of course, these relevance to real-world scenarios.

EISATS Database Testing computer vision techniques on extensive and varying data sets helps to avoid a bias which occurs when using only selective e.

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According to our experience, recorded or synthesized video data may be segmented into subsequences of about to frames or 4 to 8 seconds of recording, assuming 25 Hz as a current standard for representing one particular situation, defined by a co-occurrence of some events in traffic scenes. Examples of events are activities of adjacent traffic overtaking, oncoming traffic, crossing pedestrians, and so forth , weather and lighting conditions rain, sun strike, patterns of shadow while driving below trees, and so forth , road geometries flat or curved, narrow lane, entering a tunnel, driving on a bridge, a speed bump, and so forth , or particular Fig.

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Top: frames of Sequence 1 of Set 2 on [14]. Bottom: stereo and events such as traffic signs, a wet road surface or strong motion ground truth. S EE [36]. Uwe Franke. These sequences come with ego-motion data and time stamps for each frame. Independent moving objects ground truth and gaze data is now available.

A few of those day- or night-time, gray-level stereo sequences have been provided by Hella Aglaia Mobile Vision GmbH, Germany; most of them have been recorded by students in the. Three-camera stereo sequences rectified by pairs captured with HAKA1. More to come here soon. Left: third view.

Middle: virtual view for the disparity map shown on the right. The applied matching algorithm was belief propagation stereo analysis. Web-Based Visualization of Videos C.

NET The. This is because researchers developing extensible online image databases, capable of need to compare several videos, and the ability to play handling complex pattern analysis and image processing videos concurrently will provide valuable visual com- for selected tasks, which can support both an expert parison. In addition to the original videos as captured community in a given research area and novice users by cameras, one needs to play processed videos that from the public. For instance, a processed In the general context of environmental surveillance video could depict the optical flow as seen on the see also Section VI-A , we are currently developing a original video.

To this end, a specialist web-application web-based application called ScanT. NET, which allows is developed to support concurrent video playback.

Fig- ecology experts to upload, share, analyze, and compare ure 12 illustrates the architecture of the designed system. When the videos are in high- in database, as well as match and answer queries from definition, they consume a large bandwidth. The web- the general public. The application design and prints, overlapped footprints; finding the sex of mice by architecture are described in [77]. Calibration of Fish-Eye Cameras Fish-eye cameras are of interest for vision-based DAS because they allow to record wide-angle views, thus approaching the viewing abilities of the human visual system [1].

The geometry of fish-eye lenses may be mapped into the geometries of other panoramic sensors; see [70]. However, using fish-eye lenses in the DAS context poses several challenges such as a robust and precise synchronization and calibration of the cameras while mounted in a car and providing an unobstructed view for the cameras. The calibration must be done with the cameras mounted as they are setup for recording see Fig. System architecture. Design overview of the ScanT. NET project. Test vehicle HAKA1 of the. The overall design of ScanT.

NET follows the scheme Three fish-eye calibration methods were tested and shown in Fig. In the calibration experiments of stereo cameras with fish eye lenses, series of either 5,10,15, or 20 images of V.

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The checkerboard proved to be appropriate and practical. We review a few of the current activities in this The calibration methods were compared by analyzing project. Our main partner in this research is the group the differences in reported principal points, using back- led by Fay Huang at Ilan University, Taiwan. The general interest is in wide- matching technique.

Panoramic Stereo Visualization seems to be sufficiently precise and practical for the The precision of depth perception is limited by dig- calibration of fish-eye lenses in a DAS context. A sensible goal is B. Calibration of Rotating Sensor Matrix Cameras to optimize the stereo quality while viewing a high- The calibration of rotating sensor-line cameras see resolution panoramic image by increasing the total num- Fig. How- ber of potentially possible disparity values, including ever, sensor-line cameras are still in general not widely both crossed i.

Thus, instead of rotating a sensor-line camera medium and uncrossed i. Paper [27] discusses the optimization of stereo viewing Of course, the effective focal length of the selected sensor of panoramic images, especially with respect to zooming column will change with its position in the array. This implies stereo visualization thus also stereo analysis. The sym- that the depth cues observed from the image parallaxes metric pair can now be recorded with the rotating matrix lead to the opposite conclusion than actually wanted: camera by selecting a symmetric with respect to the objects appear further away from the viewer.

Obviously, center pair of sensor columns of the sensor array.

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The actual focal length Also note that stereo viewing requires that disparities may be calibrated using some common method for stay below the maximum disparity limit for human sensor matrix cameras. The paper [29] presents a new stereo fusion. The shaded area stands for the rotating sensor-line camera. It is in distance f to the focal center on a base circle , which rotates at distance R around the rotation axis. The sensor line is tilted by an Fig.

See [28]. Anaglyphic stereo panorama of a classroom at Ilan University captured in with a rotating sensor matrix camera. See [29]. Left: tracking tunnel with replaceable scan card. Right: an inked scan card with mouse footprints. If image disparity exceeds the upper disparity limit of human vision, then this causes double images or dipodia. This would result in uncomfortable stereo viewing as well as eyestrain [76]. Paper [27] provides a solution for zooming in and out of stereo panoramic images, also using experiments in the Ilan University Virtual Reality Lab, shown in Fig.

Here we list three current activities. Track analysis plays an important role in environ- mental surveillance [54], [2] but is generally an un- automated labour-intensive process relying upon expert Fig. Results of automated footprint labeling. Research by the group has demonstrated that much of this track analysis process see Fig.

For introduced rodents of New Zealand see nally testing unknown prints against the database us- Fig. Focal taxa for this the image-matching [60].

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The print of a large Wistar-strain male laboratory rat R. Pseudo-colored in earthy tones [61]. Processed print of a robust skink Oligosoma alani using contrast enhancement and subsequent pseudo-coloring [61].

Panoramic Imaging: Sensor-Line Cameras and Laser Range-Finders

Application of the work includes to large- scale community restoration projects where the number of tracks collected outweighs labour ability to analyze, and also to border biosecurity where new unwanted species arrivals may be detected. Small Artists As a side-project to automated track analysis, a large number of varying animal prints have been collected. Given the random behavioral component of many an- imals, these prints can themselves have an intrinsic artistic value [61]. By applying certain subsets of trans- formations and color filters it is possible to explore Fig.

Original photographs by Angela Palmer. See [71].