Cerebral Ischemia: Molecular and Cellular Pathophysiology (Contemporary Neuroscience)

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Randomized Controlled Trials. The cerebral collateral circulation: Relevance to pathophysiology and treatment of stroke. In: Neuropharmacology , Ginsberg, M , ' The cerebral collateral circulation: Relevance to pathophysiology and treatment of stroke ', Neuropharmacology.

Ginsberg M. Ginsberg, Myron. In: Neuropharmacology. TY - JOUR T1 - The cerebral collateral circulation T2 - Relevance to pathophysiology and treatment of stroke AU - Ginsberg, Myron PY - Y1 - N2 - The brain's collateral circulation consists of arterial anastomotic channels capable of providing nutrient perfusion to brain regions whose normal sources of flow have become compromised, as occurs in acute ischemic stroke. Access to Document P; Dluhy, R. G New England Journal of Medicine. The Lancet Neurology.

Current Opinion in Neurology. Scientific Reports. Bibcode : NatSR Encyclopedia Britannica. International Journal of Stroke. L; Kasner, S. E; Broderick, J. P; Caplan, L. R; Connors, J. J; Culebras, A; Elkind, M. V; George, M.

The cerebral collateral circulation

G; Hamdan, A. D; Higashida, R. T; Hoh, B. L; Janis, L. S; Kase, C. S; Kleindorfer, D. O; Lee, J. E; Peterson, E. D; Turan, T. N; Valderrama, A. L; Vinters, H.

Gudrun Ahnert-Hilger

Donald; Saver, Jeffrey L. Claiborne; Kidwell, Chelsea S. The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this statement as an educational tool for neurologists".

Table of contents

The Lancet. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. World Health Organization. Retrieved Nov 11, Oxford Handbook of Epidemiology for Clinicians. OUP Oxford. Cerebrovascular diseases G45—G46 and I60—I69 , — Epidural Subdural Subarachnoid. Duret haemorrhages. Cerebral aneurysm Intracranial berry aneurysm Charcot—Bouchard aneurysm. Cerebral vasculitis. Encephalitis Viral encephalitis Herpesviral encephalitis Limbic encephalitis Encephalitis lethargica Cavernous sinus thrombosis Brain abscess Amoebic.

Myelitis : Poliomyelitis Demyelinating disease Transverse myelitis Tropical spastic paraparesis Epidural abscess. Encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated Myalgic Meningoencephalitis. Leigh syndrome. Focal Generalised Status epilepticus Myoclonic epilepsy. Migraine Familial hemiplegic Cluster Tension. Insomnia Hypersomnia Sleep apnea Obstructive Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome Narcolepsy Cataplexy Kleine—Levin Circadian rhythm sleep disorder Advanced sleep phase disorder Delayed sleep phase disorder Nonhour sleep—wake disorder Jet lag. Brain herniation Reye's Hepatic encephalopathy Toxic encephalopathy Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

Friedreich's ataxia Ataxia-telangiectasia.

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Authority control NDL : Categories : Cerebrovascular diseases. Roman numerals indicate introns. Thus, the structure of the precursor of circRNA is formed according to the back-splicing. Otherwise, the RS-exon 7b is excised along with the rest of intron VII and leads to the circularization of the main exon 7. These transcripts compete with mRNA for binding to miRNA and diminished the effect of miRNA on the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels of gene expression regulation [ 72 , 73 ].

There are examples of pseudogenic and intergenic noncoding transcripts that can perform the functions of ceRNA [ 74 ]. Malat1 acts as an endogenous sponge for miRb.

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  5. Effective ceRNAs should have multiple miRNA binding sites and a high level of expression or increased stability [ 73 , 78 ]. Of particular interest are circRNAs, which have a covalently closed structure and are often formed from protein-coding genes during back-splicing [ 52 , 58 ].

    The transcriptional profile and functional properties of circRNAs under conditions simulating brain ischemia have been investigated. In this model, circRNA expression was associated with metabolic pathways related to apoptosis and immunity. These genes are important participants in the metabolic pathways associated with neuro-signaling. In the subcortical structures of rat brains containing a lesion, the level of such circRNAs is more stable than the corresponding mRNAs.

    A sufficiently large number of binding sites are located inside the exons, which are also part of conservative circRNA. A functional role of circRNAs of the genes under study is implicated by ceRNA in the response of brain cells to ischemia. These circRNAs may be key modes for the regulation of the neurotransmission genetic response. In a recent study, new important information was provided on the functioning of circRNA under ischemia conditions. Upregulation of circDLGAP4 expression significantly reduced neurological deficit and reduced areas of infarction and damage to the blood-brain barrier in a mouse model of ischemia.

    In particular, suppression of the expression circHectd1 was associated with a reduced infarction size in a mouse model of ischemia [ 89 ]. The data presented in this review indicate that in addition to protein-coding mRNA, ncRNAs play an important role in the regulation of intracellular processes, both under normal conditions and in pathologies. An active study of the features of the functioning of ncRNAs in ischemia is of exceptional importance for the development of new strategies for neuroprotection and repair of nerve tissue and for the development of effective new drugs.

    An analysis of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA interactions is an important component of any detailed study of the mechanisms of damage and regeneration in the case of pathological effects and the action of therapeutic agents, especially during the therapeutic window, when treatment is possible and most effective.

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    Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Ischemic brain stroke is one of the most serious and socially important medical conditions. Introduction Ischemic stroke is a serious condition and is one of the leading causes of disability and death worldwide.